How to Build a Trap
Well, this is my first tutorial, so you'll have to bear with me. =) Today, we're going to cover how to create and implement traps in Jedi Knight. As an example, we'll create a trap which can fire any template, is activated by a switch, and only fires when you enter a specified sector. The first thing we'll do is take a look at the cog.
OK, open up Notepad or your word processor of choice and start a new document entitled "multi_trap.cog". The following italicized code needs to be added to the document.
*Note: Anything in blue is merely the author's comments. They are not to be added to the cog.
# Jedi Knight Cog Script
# Multiplayer trap(s) that can be deactivated by switch.
# (C) 1998 The Massassi Temple. All Rights Reserved
This is merely the header. Everything following the '#' is ignored by Jedi Knight. You can use this to describe the cog, name the author, and tell who has the "rights" for the cog.
This is the start of the symbols section.This is needed at the start of the object and variable declarations.
This defines two functions - "Activated" is called whenever the player activates an item or switch. "Entered" is called whenever a player enters a sector defined in the cog.
surface switch desc=switch
sector shootSector linkid=1 desc=shootSector
Here we have two variables. The first is the switch that will activate the trap. The second is the sector that, when a player enters it, will start the trap shooting. The linkid in the second line is used to further determine which sector was entered. (Useful when you have more than one sector to be used in a trap)
This is the projectile to be used for the trap. Because there isn't a local keyword following the line, this variable is customizable in JED.
thing ghost1 nolink,desc=ghost1
thing ghost2 nolink,desc=ghost2
thing ghost3 nolink,desc=ghost3
thing ghost4 nolink,desc=ghost4
This defines four things, which will be the launch points for our trap. They are customizable using JED.
The number of rounds fired when the trap sector is entered.
The rate of fire between the four turrets and the two field of views (FOV) used. The X FOV is the left-to-right area that the turrets use, and the Z FOV is the up-down area for the shooters to use.
int firing=0 local
int cur_round=0 local
int activated=0 local
Three more variables. These variables are "local", i.e. they are defined later on in the cog, and not customizable in JED. The first variable determines whether the turrets are firing or not. The second determines the current round. The last one is used to determine whether or not the switch has been activated.
sound fireSound=turret-1.wav local
sound on_snd=set_hi2.wav local
sound off_snd=lgclick1.wav local
The three sounds used for the trap.
You use "end" after all symbols (objects, variables) are defined. This tells Jedi Knight that the symbol definition is done.
This tells Jedi Knight that the code section is starting...
The "activated" function - only runs if the player activates a switch or item.
if (activated == 0)
If the switch has not been activated... (activated = 0)
This line changes the surfaces texture. Certain .mats have more than one texture (for
example, switches) Here, we change the .mat to it's second texture. (0 is the first)
activated = 1;
We set activated to 1, signifying that the switch has been activated.
PlaySoundPos(on_snd, SurfaceCenter(switch), 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 0);
Here, we play the "on" sound... The different variables are as follows:
on_snd is the sound to be played.
SurfaceCenter(switch) is a command that determines the exact center of a surface (switch)
the third parameter (1.0) - the volume of the sound to be heard.
the fourth parameter (5.0) - the minimum distance for the sound to be heard.
the fifth parameter (10.0) - the maximum distance for the sound to be heard
the sixth parameter (0) - flags (not sure what different flags can be used here)
If the switch HAS already been activated....
activated = 0;
and set the "activated" variable back to 0 (i.e. the switch is off)
dummy = PlaySoundPos(off_snd, SurfaceCenter(switch), 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 0);
We also play the "off" sound, using the PlaySoundPos command
This signifies the end of the "activated" function....
The "entered" function - runs if the player enters a sector defined in the cog
if (GetSenderID() == 1)
This line determines whether the sector entered is the same as the sector with the linked 1.
if(firing == 1) Return;
If the "firing" variable equals 1, end the function...
if(activated != 1) Return;
Also, if the switch hasn't been activated, end the function.
firing = 1;
Set the "firing" variable to 1.
cur_round = 0;
Set the current round to 0;
while(cur_round < rounds)
While the current round is less than the maximum number of rounds...
FireProjectile(ghost1, projectile, fireSound, -1, '0 0 0', '0 0 0', 1.0, 0x60, autoAimXFOV, autoAimZFOV);
OK, this is the actual command used to fire the projectile... We'll spend a little time on this one here.
The syntax for the FireProjectile command is as follows:
FireProjectile(thing turret, template projectile, sound fireSound, int mode, vector fireOffset, vector aimingError, flex unknown, int flags, flex XFOV, flex ZFOV)
The first variable is pretty much self-explanatory - it is the thing that shoots the projectile. The second variable is the template for the projectile to be shot.The third variable is the sound to play while the projectile is being fired. The fourth variable is the mode (key) to play while shooting, useful if a player is doing the shooting, but not for a trap. The fifth parameter is the fire offset vector... this is used to change where the projectile comes from. A fire offset vector of '0 0 1' would fire the projectile 1 JKU (Jedi Knight Unit) higher than if you used a fire offset vector of '0 0 0'. The sixth parameter is the aiming error vector... if it's not equal to '0 0 0', the projectile will be off target. The higher the numbers, the further off it will be. The seventh parameter is unknown right now, so we won't discuss that one. =P The eight parameter is the flags used by the FireProjectile command. I'm not sure what all flags can be used for this command, so stick with "0x60" unless you want to experiment. The last two parameters are the X-Axis FOV and Z-Axis FOV. They determine the left-right and up-down range of the turret.
This command causes JK to sleep for rate seconds... no commands are run by this cog.
FireProjectile(ghost2, projectile, fireSound, -1, '0 0 0', '0 0 0', 1.0, 0x60, autoAimXFOV, autoAimZFOV);
FireProjectile(ghost3, projectile, fireSound, -1, '0 0 0', '0 0 0', 1.0, 0x60, autoAimXFOV, autoAimZFOV);
FireProjectile(ghost4, projectile, fireSound, -1, '0 0 0', '0 0 0', 1.0, 0x60, autoAimXFOV, autoAimZFOV);
These are all the same as the first one; they just fire from different turrets.
cur_round = cur_round + 1;
Increment the current round by one, and continue until you reach the maximum number of rounds. (rounds)
firing = 0;
Set the "firing" variable to 0.
This is the end of the "entered" funtion...
This signifies the end of the code section, which is also the end of the cog...
That's all there is to it.. see that wasn't so hard. =uP
Now, time to tackle how to implement it in JED. OK, so crank up JED now, and start a new level (or open up an old one if you'd like). If you haven't done so already, put the new trap cog into the project directory of the level.
Now, in JED, create a sector to put your trap in. On one of the walls put a switch (see the switches tutorial for more information on adding switches) to use for your trap. Now create four new things in your sector, using the template "ghost", and place them where you want your trap to shoot from. Make sure they are facing the right direction. (you can change the directions by editing the pitch, yaw, roll variables in the Item Editor in JED)
OK, now write down (or remember) the sector number used in the trap, the switch's surface number, and the four thing numbers for the turrets.
If you don't have your level saved in .JED format yet, you'll need to save it now. Open up the Placed Cogs window, and add a new cog. On the left pane, select Project Directory. In the right pane, select the new trap cog. Click OK. Now, using the numbers you wrote down, fill in the variables for the cog. The names of the variables are self-explanatory...
|switch||The surface number of the switch which you wrote down earlier|
|sector ||Enter the sector number you wrote down earlier|
|projectile||The template to use for the projectile to be fired. You have a wide selection of choices here, not just limited to weapon projectiles. Be creative and use rocks, shrapnel, and explosions... *Note: not all projectiles can be used in this cog.|
|ghostn||The four thing numbers for the turrets.|
|rounds||The number of rounds to use for the trap.|
|rate||The time delay between the fire from the traps. (in seconds)|
|autoAimXFOV ||The left-to-right range for the turret to use. (0 to 360)|
|autoAimZFOV||The up-down range for the turret to use (0 to 180)|
OK, that's all there is to it... really! =uP
Now, gob it and run it to see the results... fires too slowly? change the rate of fire. Too narrow a field of fire? Increase the FOVs. Don't like the projectile fired? Change that too! Well, it's late now, so I better end it... hope this has helps some of you beginning coggers in your quest to understand traps.